Understanding fish cognition: a review and appraisal of current practices

Matthew G. Salena*, Andy J. Turko, Angad Singh, Avani Pathak, Emily Hughes, Culum Brown, Sigal Balshine

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    13 Citations (Scopus)


    With over 30,000 recognized species, fishes exhibit an extraordinary variety of morphological, behavioural, and life-history traits. The field of fish cognition has grown markedly with numerous studies on fish spatial navigation, numeracy, learning, decision-making, and even theory of mind. However, most cognitive research on fishes takes place in a highly controlled laboratory environment and it can therefore be difficult to determine whether findings generalize to the ecology of wild fishes. Here, we summarize four prominent research areas in fish cognition, highlighting some of the recent advances and key findings. Next, we survey the literature, targeting these four areas, and quantify the nearly ubiquitous use of captive-bred individuals and a heavy reliance on lab-based research. We then discuss common practices that occur prior to experimentation and within experiments that could hinder our ability to make more general conclusions about fish cognition, and suggest possible solutions. By complementing ecologically relevant laboratory-based studies with in situ cognitive tests, we will gain further inroads toward unraveling how fishes learn and make decisions about food, mates, and territories.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)395-406
    Number of pages12
    JournalAnimal Cognition
    Issue number3
    Early online date17 Feb 2021
    Publication statusPublished - May 2021


    • Behavior
    • Decision-making
    • Intelligence
    • Learning
    • Memory
    • Teleosts


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