Unusual micro- and nano-inclusions in diamonds from the Juina Area, Brazil

Richard Wirth*, Felix Kaminsky, Stanislav Matsyuk, Anja Schreiber

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


A series of uncommon micro- and nano-inclusions has been identified in diamonds from the Rio Soriso placer deposit in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The micro-inclusions are variable in size, from 1 to 300 μm. Usually, they are polymineralic, being formed predominantly by intergrowths of carbonates, silicates and other minerals. Carbonates are represented mostly by dolomite and occasionally by calcite. Silicates found are coesite, wollastonite-II, cuspidine and monticellite. Sulphides and ilmenite form micro-inclusions as well. Nano-inclusions are different from micro-inclusions not only in size (not exceeding 200 nm); they are usually included in micro-inclusions. Among nano-inclusions, halides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl 2 and PbCl 2), anhydrite, spinel, phlogopite, PbO 2, TiO 2 with an α-PbO 2 structure, native Fe, and other phases are identified. All these minerals are of the eclogitic association: they are either associated with coesite or are included in a diamond with a light, 'organic' carbon isotopic composition (with δ 13C from - 14 to - 25‰ PDB). This confirms our earlier conclusion that diamonds from the Juina area may have formed as a result of subduction of the crustal material to depths of at least the lower transition zone or even the lower mantle. The pressure estimates for the investigated diamonds vary in a range from 3 to 10 GPa. An interesting assemblage of calcite + cuspidine + wollastonite + monticellite + fluid identified in one of the studied diamonds is considered as a product of a reaction of wollastonite + fluid forming cuspidine + monticellite. The presence of numerous pores, cavities and bubbles in mineral inclusions, and identification of an association of volatile-containing mineral inclusions, such as halides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl 2, and PbCl 2), fluorine-containing silicate cuspidine, and phlogopite emphasize the important role of volatiles, particularly chlorine and fluorine in the formation of the diamonds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)292-303
Number of pages12
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • cuspidine
  • diamond
  • halides
  • inclusions
  • TEM
  • wollastonite

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