Purpose of review: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasing in prevalence. The intermittent hypoxia of OSA has wide-ranging effects on a patient's general health outcomes. However, gold-standard investigations and treatment are expensive and a significant burden on patients. Therefore, OSA research remains focused on improving the means of diagnosing and treating OSA, in high-risk-associated conditions. This review is to provide an update on the advances in the field of OSA. Recent findings: There has been recent debate about the best practice for diagnosis and treatment of OSA. Further work has been done on conditions associated with OSA including hypertension, atherosclerosis, various types of dementia and intracranial aneurysms. Inflammatory and vascular risk factors associated with OSA increase stroke risk and alter outcomes for recovery. OSA should definitely be considered in patients presenting with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and perhaps those with intracranial hypertension. Summary: Newer home-based sleep-apnea testing can be implemented via physician clinics, with oversight by a certified sleep physician. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold-standard, management should include diet and exercise. It is important to test for, and treat OSA in patients with a range of neurological diseases. However, further studies into the long-term impact of CPAP on health outcomes are still needed.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Current Opinion in Neurology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2019|
- obstructive sleep apnea
- sleep disordered breathing
- vascular risk factors