Uplift of the southeastern Australian lithosphere: thermal-tectonic evolution of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from western Victoria

Jiang-Gu Lu, Qing Xiong, William L. Griffin, Jian-Ping Zheng, Jin-Xiang Huang, Suzanne Y. O'Reilly, Takako Satsukawa, Norman J. Pearson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Detailed petrography, microstructure, and geochemistry of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths in Holocene basanite tuffs from maars at Lakes Bullenmerri and Gnotuk (western Victoria, southeastern Australia) have been used to track their igneous and metamorphic history, enabling the reconstruction of the thermal-tectonic evolution of the lithospheric mantle. The exsolution of orthopyroxene and garnet and rare spinel, plagioclase, and ilmenite from complex clinopyroxene megacrysts suggests that the xenoliths originally were clinopyroxene-dominant cumulates associated with minor garnet, orthopyroxene, or spinel. The compositions of exsolved phases and their host clinopyroxene were reintegrated using measured modal proportions to show that the primary clinopyroxene was enriched in Al2O3 (5.53-13.63 wt%) and crystallized at ∼1300-1500 °C and 16-30 kbar. These cumulates then underwent extensive exsolution, recrystallization, and reaction during cooling, and finally equilibrated at ∼950-1100 °C and 12-18 kbar before entrainment in the basanites. Rare earth element (REE) thermobarometry of garnets and coexisting clinopyroxenes preserves evidence of an intermediate stage (1032 °C and 21 kbar). These results imply that the proto-liths of the garnet pyroxenite formed at a range of depths from ∼50 to 100 km, and then during or shortly after cooling, they were tectonically emplaced to higher levels (∼40-60 km; i.e., uplifted by at least 10-20 km) along the prevailing geotherm. This uplift may have been connected with lithosphere-scale faulting during the Paleozoic orogeny, or during Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting of eastern Australia.

LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries
Subtitle of host publicationinsights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies
EditorsGianluca Bianchini, Jean-Louis Bodinier, Roberto Braga, Marjorie Wilson
Place of PublicationColorado
PublisherGeological Society of America
Pages27-48
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9780813725260
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Publication series

NameSpecial paper
PublisherGeological Society of America
Volume526

Fingerprint

pyroxenite
tectonic evolution
garnet
lithosphere
uplift
clinopyroxene
exsolution
cumulate
orthopyroxene
spinel
cooling
basanite
petrography
ilmenite
orogeny
entrainment
rifting
plagioclase
microstructure
faulting

Cite this

Lu, J-G., Xiong, Q., Griffin, W. L., Zheng, J-P., Huang, J-X., O'Reilly, S. Y., ... Pearson, N. J. (2017). Uplift of the southeastern Australian lithosphere: thermal-tectonic evolution of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from western Victoria. In G. Bianchini, J-L. Bodinier, R. Braga, & M. Wilson (Eds.), The crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries: insights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies (pp. 27-48). (Special paper; Vol. 526). Colorado: Geological Society of America. https://doi.org/10.1130/2017.2526(02)
Lu, Jiang-Gu ; Xiong, Qing ; Griffin, William L. ; Zheng, Jian-Ping ; Huang, Jin-Xiang ; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y. ; Satsukawa, Takako ; Pearson, Norman J. / Uplift of the southeastern Australian lithosphere : thermal-tectonic evolution of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from western Victoria. The crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries: insights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies. editor / Gianluca Bianchini ; Jean-Louis Bodinier ; Roberto Braga ; Marjorie Wilson. Colorado : Geological Society of America, 2017. pp. 27-48 (Special paper).
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abstract = "Detailed petrography, microstructure, and geochemistry of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths in Holocene basanite tuffs from maars at Lakes Bullenmerri and Gnotuk (western Victoria, southeastern Australia) have been used to track their igneous and metamorphic history, enabling the reconstruction of the thermal-tectonic evolution of the lithospheric mantle. The exsolution of orthopyroxene and garnet and rare spinel, plagioclase, and ilmenite from complex clinopyroxene megacrysts suggests that the xenoliths originally were clinopyroxene-dominant cumulates associated with minor garnet, orthopyroxene, or spinel. The compositions of exsolved phases and their host clinopyroxene were reintegrated using measured modal proportions to show that the primary clinopyroxene was enriched in Al2O3 (5.53-13.63 wt{\%}) and crystallized at ∼1300-1500 °C and 16-30 kbar. These cumulates then underwent extensive exsolution, recrystallization, and reaction during cooling, and finally equilibrated at ∼950-1100 °C and 12-18 kbar before entrainment in the basanites. Rare earth element (REE) thermobarometry of garnets and coexisting clinopyroxenes preserves evidence of an intermediate stage (1032 °C and 21 kbar). These results imply that the proto-liths of the garnet pyroxenite formed at a range of depths from ∼50 to 100 km, and then during or shortly after cooling, they were tectonically emplaced to higher levels (∼40-60 km; i.e., uplifted by at least 10-20 km) along the prevailing geotherm. This uplift may have been connected with lithosphere-scale faulting during the Paleozoic orogeny, or during Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting of eastern Australia.",
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Lu, J-G, Xiong, Q, Griffin, WL, Zheng, J-P, Huang, J-X, O'Reilly, SY, Satsukawa, T & Pearson, NJ 2017, Uplift of the southeastern Australian lithosphere: thermal-tectonic evolution of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from western Victoria. in G Bianchini, J-L Bodinier, R Braga & M Wilson (eds), The crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries: insights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies. Special paper, vol. 526, Geological Society of America, Colorado, pp. 27-48. https://doi.org/10.1130/2017.2526(02)

Uplift of the southeastern Australian lithosphere : thermal-tectonic evolution of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from western Victoria. / Lu, Jiang-Gu; Xiong, Qing; Griffin, William L.; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Huang, Jin-Xiang; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Satsukawa, Takako; Pearson, Norman J.

The crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries: insights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies. ed. / Gianluca Bianchini; Jean-Louis Bodinier; Roberto Braga; Marjorie Wilson. Colorado : Geological Society of America, 2017. p. 27-48 (Special paper; Vol. 526).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review

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AB - Detailed petrography, microstructure, and geochemistry of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths in Holocene basanite tuffs from maars at Lakes Bullenmerri and Gnotuk (western Victoria, southeastern Australia) have been used to track their igneous and metamorphic history, enabling the reconstruction of the thermal-tectonic evolution of the lithospheric mantle. The exsolution of orthopyroxene and garnet and rare spinel, plagioclase, and ilmenite from complex clinopyroxene megacrysts suggests that the xenoliths originally were clinopyroxene-dominant cumulates associated with minor garnet, orthopyroxene, or spinel. The compositions of exsolved phases and their host clinopyroxene were reintegrated using measured modal proportions to show that the primary clinopyroxene was enriched in Al2O3 (5.53-13.63 wt%) and crystallized at ∼1300-1500 °C and 16-30 kbar. These cumulates then underwent extensive exsolution, recrystallization, and reaction during cooling, and finally equilibrated at ∼950-1100 °C and 12-18 kbar before entrainment in the basanites. Rare earth element (REE) thermobarometry of garnets and coexisting clinopyroxenes preserves evidence of an intermediate stage (1032 °C and 21 kbar). These results imply that the proto-liths of the garnet pyroxenite formed at a range of depths from ∼50 to 100 km, and then during or shortly after cooling, they were tectonically emplaced to higher levels (∼40-60 km; i.e., uplifted by at least 10-20 km) along the prevailing geotherm. This uplift may have been connected with lithosphere-scale faulting during the Paleozoic orogeny, or during Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting of eastern Australia.

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BT - The crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries

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Lu J-G, Xiong Q, Griffin WL, Zheng J-P, Huang J-X, O'Reilly SY et al. Uplift of the southeastern Australian lithosphere: thermal-tectonic evolution of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from western Victoria. In Bianchini G, Bodinier J-L, Braga R, Wilson M, editors, The crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries: insights from xenoliths, orogenic deep sections, and geophysical studies. Colorado: Geological Society of America. 2017. p. 27-48. (Special paper). https://doi.org/10.1130/2017.2526(02)