Urban bird conservation: presenting stakeholder-specific arguments for the development of bird-friendly cities

Robbert Ph Snep*, Jip Louwe Kooijmans, Robert Gm Kwak, Ruud Pb Foppen, Holly Parsons, Monica Awasthy, Henk Lk Sierdsema, John M. Marzluff, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Jenny de Laet, Yolanda M. van Heezik

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    18 Citations (Scopus)
    5 Downloads (Pure)


    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird literature we focus upon habitat fragmentation, limited habitat availability, lack of the native vegetation and vegetation structure as the most important challenges facing bird conservation in cities. We follow with an overview of the stakeholders in cities, and identify six main groups having the greatest potential to improve bird survival in cities: i) urban planners, urban designers and (landscape) architects, ii) urban developers and engineers, iii) homeowners and tenants, iv) companies and industries, v) landscaping and gardening firms, vi) education professionals. Given that motivation to act positively for urban birds is linked to stakeholder-specific advice, we present ten statements for bird-friendly cities that are guided by an action perspective and argument for each stakeholder group. We conclude with a discussion on how the use of stakeholder-specific arguments can enhance and rapidly advance urban bird conservation action.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1535-1550
    Number of pages16
    JournalUrban Ecosystems
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright the Author(s) 2015. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


    • argument
    • conservation strategy
    • stakeholder
    • urban biodiversity
    • urban bird conservation
    • urban green


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