Aim: To evaluate the success of endoscopic deroofing with double J (DJ) stenting as a primary treatment modality of uncomplicated ureterocele. Patients and methods: All babies with uncomplicated ureterocele referred to us between 2005 and 2015 were to be prospectively recruited into the study without any exception. The preoperative management would include ultrasound KUB on a fixed protocol, micturating cystourethrogram, DTPA scan and MRU (magnetic resonance urography) or IVP (intravenous pyelography). Those who had non-obstructing ureterocele were to be followed conservatively. The indications for operative intervention were to be obstructed ureterocele, bladder outlet obstruction, recurrent UTI or progressive renal scarring. They were then to be taken for cystoscopy in diuretic phase for endoscopic deroofing and DJ stenting with 9F resectoscope. Four weeks later, the DJ stent was to be removed after examining the deroofing in each patient. They were then followed up for future development of symptoms and need for secondary surgery with anatomical and functional imaging as necessary. Results: Forty three consecutive patients (47 ureterocele units) with ureterocele were recruited into the study between 2005 and 2015. Thirty four patients were managed by endoscopic first approach with ureterocele deroofing and DJ stenting. Four babies were asymptomatic and did not show obstructed drainage pattern on DTPA and hence were managed conservatively and kept on follow-up. Four patients underwent primary open surgery and reconstruction because of presentation with complications. Ectopic ureterocele: There were 17 patients with ectopic ureterocele. Thirteen underwent primary endoscopic deroofing. Three underwent open surgery and one underwent robotic bilateral ureterocele excision and ureteric reimplantation. Eight children out of thirteen are completely asymptomatic after the endoscopic incision. On ultrasound evaluation 8/13 have resolution of the hydronephrosis and 5/13 have stable hydronephrosis with no increase in dilatation. None of these 13 children have required a second endoscopic procedure for inadequate decompression of the ureterocele. None of the 13 patients have any voiding difficulty or incontinence. 2/13 cases with recurrent UTI and persistent symptoms, required secondary surgery. This constituted 15% secondary surgery in the ectopic ureterocele category. Orthotopic ureterocele: There were 21 patients out of 22 with orthotopic ureterocele who underwent endoscopic deroofing. Six out of these 21 patients had episodes of UTI, of which three had resolution of the reflux and two had downgrading of reflux. One child continued to have recurrent UTI and needed a laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. Eighteen children are completely asymptomatic after the initial endoscopic deroofing. The rate of secondary surgery was 4.7% in orthotopic ureterocele group, where nearly 50% have more than five years follow-up. None of our patients who are more than five years, have had any urinary incontinence or voiding dysfunction. All patients remain on follow-up from 6 months to 10 years (median 5 years). Conclusion At this stage of our study with median follow-up of 5 years (6 months–10 years), we suggest that primary endoscopic deroofing with DJ stenting for obstructing ureterocele is the best initial approach for adequate decompression and reducing the rate of secondary surgery.
- endoscopic deroofing