Using video and static pictures to improve learning of procedural contents

Amaël Arguel*, Eric Jamet

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

113 Citations (Scopus)


Animations and videos are often designed to present information that involves change over time, in such a way as to aid understanding and facilitate learning. However, in many studies, static displays have been found to be just as beneficial and sometimes better. In this study, we investigated the impact of presenting together both a video recording and a series of static pictures. In experiment 1, we compared 3 conditions (1) video shown alone, (2) static pictures displayed alone, and (3) video plus static pictures. On average the best learning scores were found for the 3rd condition. In experiment 2 we investigated how best to present the static pictures, by examining the number of pictures required (low vs. high frequency) and their appearance type (static vs. dynamic). We found that the dynamic presentation of pictures was superior to the static pictures mode; and showing fewer pictures (low frequency) was more beneficial. Overall the findings support the effectiveness of a combination of instructional animation with static pictures. However, the number of static pictures, which are used, is an important moderating factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)354-359
Number of pages6
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


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