We present an optical modeling approach for calculating vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) modes based on the bidirectional beam propagation method. Compared with existing approaches, it is flexible, efficient, and convenient. To demonstrate and validate the approach, we examined several design problems for oxide-confined VCSEL devices. Specifically, we modeled the blue-shift phenomenon in small oxidized VCSELs and compared our calculations with previous results. We also examined the dependence of the threshold gain on different oxide-aperture shaped designs and on the thickness and placement of an aperture layer.
- Bidirectional beam propagation method
- Laser modes
- Oxide apertures
- Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers