Verbal learning and memory after childhood stroke

Amy E. Lansing*, Jeffrey E. Max, Dean C. Delis, Peter T. Fox, Jack Lancaster, Facundo F. Manes, Amy Schatz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Verbal learning and memory (VLM) following pediatric stroke was characterized in a cross-sectional neuropsychological and neuroimaging study of 26 subjects, aged 5 to 17, with a history of pediatric stroke and 26 age, SES, and gender matched orthopedic controls. Further comparisons were made between the VLM profiles of stroke subjects with right versus left hemisphere lesions and early (≤12 months) versus late (>12 months) strokes. Overall, stroke subjects scored significantly lower than control subjects on several VLM indices (California Verbal Learning Test-Children; CVLT-C), as well as on measures of intellectual functioning (IQ) and auditory attention/working memory (Digit Span). Subgroup analyses of the stoke population found no significant differences in VLM, Digit Span, Verbal IQ or Performance IQ when left-hemisphere lesion subjects were compared to right-hemisphere lesion subjects. In contrast, early strokes were associated with significantly fewer words recalled after delay, reduced discriminability (fewer correct hits Native to false positive errors on recognition testing), and relatively worse auditory attention /working memory scores (Digit Span). These findings indicate that pediatric stroke subjects demonstrated more VLM impairment than control subjects, and early strokes were associated with greater recall and recognition deficits. In stark contrast with adult-onset stroke, both left- and right-hemisphere lesions during childhood resulted in similar VLM performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)742-752
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • CVLT
  • Memory
  • Pediatric focal stroke
  • Verbal learning


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