Visual multifrequency entrainment: can 1: 2, 2: 3, and 3: 4 coordination occur spontaneously?

Auriel Washburn, Charles A. Coey, Veronica Romero, Michael J. Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Complex patterns of interlimb coordination, such as multifrequency relationships of 1:2, 2:3, or 3:4, are difficult to perform intentionally without extensive practice. The current study investigated whether these patterns might nonetheless occur spontaneously given an appropriate balance between the movement frequencies, or oscillatory periods, of an individual's movements and a visual-environmental stimulus. In order to test this, participants swung a fixed-period wrist-pendulum while observing an oscillating computer-generated stimulus. Results indicated that at given differences in period, 1:2, 2:3, and 3:4 coordination patterns emerged between the participant and stimulus. This suggests that large period differences do not altogether prevent the emergence of rhythmic visuomotor coordination, but instead provide the opportunity for complex patterns of coordination to emerge spontaneously.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-257
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • interpersonal coordination
  • polyrhythms
  • spontaneous entrainment
  • visual coordination


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