What can reduce letter migrations in letter position dyslexia?

Naama Friedmann*, Einav Rahamim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading cloud as could. In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included tracking the letters with the index finger, spacing of two or six spaces between letters, presenting each letter in a different colour and inserting a sign between letters. We also tested the effect of diacritic markers, which provide disambiguating phonological information. Several display manipulations reduced the rate of letter migrations, and finger tracking was the most efficient technique. Diacritic markers were either ignored or made reading even more difficult. These findings indicate that LPD is treatable, and that the technique that is the easiest to apply, finger tracking, is also the most promising one in reducing letter migrations in LPD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-315
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Research in Reading
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes


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