White paper on ophthalmic imaging for choroidal nevus identification and transformation into Melanoma

Carol L. Shields*, Sara E. Lally, Lauren A. Dalvin, Mandeep S. Sagoo, Marco Pellegrini, Swathi Kaliki, Ahmet Kaan Gündüz, Minoru Furuta, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya, Adrian T. Fung, Jay S. Duker, Sara M. Selig, Antonio Yaghy, Sandor R. Ferenczy, Malvina B. Eydelman, Mark S. Blumenkranz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
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Purpose: To discuss the evolution of noninvasive diagnostic methods in the identification of choroidal nevus and determination of risk factors for malignant transformation as well as introduce the novel role that artificial intelligence (AI) can play in the diagnostic process. Methods: White paper. Results: Longstanding diagnostic methods to stratify benign choroidal nevus from choroidal melanoma and to further determine the risk for nevus transformation into melanoma have been dependent on recognition of key clinical features by ophthalmic examination. These risk factors have been derived from multiple large cohort research studies over the past several decades and have garnered widespread use throughout the world. More recent publications have applied ocular diagnostic testing (fundus photog-raphy, ultrasound examination, autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography) to identify risk factors for the malignant transformation of choroidal nevus based on multimodal imaging features. The widespread usage of ophthalmic imaging systems to identify and follow choroidal nevus, in conjunction with the characterization of malignant transformation risk factors via diagnostic imaging, presents a novel path to apply AI. Conclusions: AI applied to existing ophthalmic imaging systems could be used for both identification of choroidal nevus and as a tool to aid in earlier detection of transformation to malignant melanoma. Translational Relevance: Advances in AI models applied to ophthalmic imaging systems have the potential to improve patient care, because earlier detection and treatment of melanoma has been proven to improve long-term clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number24
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2021. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Choroid
  • Melanoma
  • Multimodal imaging
  • Nevus


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