Wind and mechanical stimuli differentially affect leaf traits in Plantago major

Niels P R Anten*, Rafael Alcalá-Herrera, Feike Schieving, Yusuke Onoda

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    97 Citations (Scopus)


    •Analysing plant phenotypic plasticity in response to wind is complicated as this factor entails not only mechanical stress but also affects leaf gas and heat exchange. •We exposed Plantago major plants to brushing (mechanical stress, MS) and wind (MS and air flow) and determined the effects on physiological, morphological and mechanical characteristics of leaf petioles and laminas as well as on growth and biomass allocation at the whole-plant level. •Both MS and wind similarly reduced growth but their effects on morphological and mechanical plant traits were different. MS induced the formation of leaves with more slender petioles, and more elliptic and thinner laminas, while wind tended to evoke the opposite response. These morphological and mechanical changes increased lamina and petiole flexibility in MS plants, thus reducing mechanical stress by reconfiguration of plant structure. Responses to wind, on the other hand, seemed to be more associated with reducing transpiration. •These results show that responses to mechanical stress and wind can be different and even in the opposite direction. Plant responses to wind in the field can therefore be variable depending on overall environmental conditions and plant characteristics.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)554-564
    Number of pages11
    JournalNew Phytologist
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


    • Biomechanics
    • Leaf anatomy
    • Leaf functional traits
    • Phenotypic plasticity
    • Thigmomorphogenesis
    • Wind


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