Wine, beer and cider: Unravelling the aroma profile

Amparo Gamero, Vicente Ferreira, Isak S. Pretorius, Amparo Querol*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The aroma profile of alcoholic beverages is a major factor that distinguishes one product from another, and it is a key attribute that drives consumer preference at points of sale. A longstanding objective has, therefore, been to identify those aromatic compounds that are important to particular olfactory attributes of different styles of wine, beer and cider-whether perceived ortho-or retro-nasally-and to modulate them according to consumer preferences. That this has been achieved only to a relatively small extent to date is partly a reflection on the complexity of the perception of aroma mixtures and also the presence of very low concentrations of potent aroma compounds in these products. It is known, although perhaps not appreciated as widely as it should be, that aroma compounds will interact with each other, with masking or suppressing effects being probably universal for compounds at supra-threshold concentrations, together with additive interactions for compounds at sub-threshold concentrations. Thus it is likely that volatile compounds with marginal aroma impact when isolated, can together provide an influence on aroma. Some of these aroma-active compounds are produced during fermentation. Different yeasts produce differing ranges of aroma-active substances, which may greatly affect the complex flavour of a fermented product such as wine, beer and cider. While these secondary metabolites are often formed only in trace amounts, their concentrations may well determine the distinct aroma of these beverages. This chapter reviews the production of the most important aroma-active compounds produced by yeast at molecular level and seeks to understand how they might be perceived by consumers.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMolecular Mechanisms in Yeast Carbon Metabolism
EditorsJure Piškur, Concetta Compagno
Place of PublicationBerlin; Heidelberg
PublisherSpringer, Springer Nature
Number of pages37
ISBN (Electronic)9783642550133
ISBN (Print)3642550126, 9783642550126
Publication statusPublished - 2014


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