Wolf-Rayet nebulae as tracers of stellar ionizing fluxes: I. M1-67

Paul A. Crowther*, A. Pasquali, Orsola De Marco, W. Schmutz, D. J. Hillier, A. De Koter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


We use WR124 (WN8h) and its associated nebula M1-67, to test theoretical non-LTE models for Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. Lyman continuum ionizing flux distributions derived from a stellar analysis of WR124, are compared with nebular properties via photo-ionization modelling. Our study demonstrates the significant role that line blanketing plays in affecting the Lyman ionizing energy distribution of WR stars, of particular relevance to the study of HII regions containing young stellar populations. We confirm previous results that non-line blanketed WR energy distributions fail to explain the observed nebular properties of M1-67, such that the predicted ionizing spectrum is too hard. A line blanketed analysis of WR124 is carried out using the method of Millier & Miller (1998), with stellar properties in accord with previous results, except that the inclusion of clumping in the stellar wind reduces its wind performance factor to only ∼2. The ionizing spectrum of the line blanketed model is much softer than for a comparable temperature unblanketed case, such that negligible flux is emitted with energy above the He I λ504 edge. Photoionization modelling, incorporating the observed radial density distribution for M1-67 reveals excellent agreement with the observed nebular electron temperature, ionization balance and line strengths. An alternative stellar model of WR124 is calculated, following the technique of de Koter et al. (1997), augmented to include line blanketing following Schmutz et al. (1991). Good consistency is reached regarding the stellar properties of WR 124, but agreement with the nebular properties of M1-67 is somewhat poorer than for the Hillier & Miller code.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1007-1017
Number of pages11
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • ISM: H II regions
  • ISM: individual objects: M1-67
  • Stars: fundamental parameters
  • Stars: individual: WR124
  • Stars: Wolf-Rayet


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