AIM: To assess differences in the exposure, teaching, knowledge, appreciation, and interest in interventional radiology (IR) between male and female doctors prior to specialisation and to identify potential predisposing factors to the gender inequality in interventional radiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted using in-person and web-based distribution of a voluntary, anonymous questionnaire to junior doctors yet to commence specialisation at 11 health services across two Australian states. RESULTS: Complete responses were provided by 333 junior doctors (21.9% response rate). Women were significantly less likely than men to consider a career in IR (13.1% versus 29.7%, p < 0.001). No other statistically significant gender disparities were identified, as both men and women reported low levels of prior teaching and exposure to IR, strong belief in the importance of IR, and suboptimal knowledge of IR. CONCLUSIONS: The gender gap amongst practising Australian interventional radiologists is perpetuated by a consistent gender gap in upcoming junior doctors' desire to pursue IR. This disparity exists despite junior doctors receiving the same exposure and opportunities in interventional radiology, possibly suggesting that preconceived stereotypes or psychosocial factors deter females from pursuing this procedural, male-dominated subspecialty. Future qualitative studies are required to confirm this hypothesis, in conjunction with prospective, experimental trials to determine whether changes in education, mentorship, and advocacy can promote gender equality.