We investigated word attribute effects on and characteristics of errors in spelling to dictation of two-character Japanese Kanji words in 48 Japanese normal adults. Frequency, imageability, and spelling consistency significantly affected spelling accuracy and latency. The frequency and imageability effects are taken to reflect lexical processing, and the spelling consistency effect is taken to reflect sub-lexical processing. These results suggest that both lexical and sub-lexical processing occur during spelling to dictation of Kanji words. Spelling duration was affected by frequency and number of strokes. The spelling errors were mainly classified into three types: one-character correct responses, phonologically plausible errors, and non-responses. This outcome suggests that phonologically plausible errors result from sub-lexical processing for spelling inconsistent words.