Word fluency performance and strategies in children with cochlear implants: Age-dependent effects?

Ulrika Löfkvist*, Ove Almkvist, Björn Lyxell, Ing Mari Tallberg

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)


    Word fluency was examined in 73 Swedish children aged 6-9years divided into two age groups, 6-7 and 8-9years; 34 deaf children with cochlear implants (CI) (15 girls/19 boys) and 39 age-matched children with normal hearing (NH) (20 girls/19 boys). One purpose was to compare the ability to retrieve words in two different word fluency tasks; one phonemically based (FAS letter fluency) and one semantically based (animal fluency). A second purpose was to examine retrieval strategies in the two tasks by conducting an analysis of clustering and switching of word sequences. In general we found that age was an important factor for word fluency ability, in both the CI and the NH groups. It was also demonstrated that children with CI aged 8-9years retrieved significantly fewer words and used less efficient strategies in the retrieval process, especially on the phonemically based task compared to children with NH of the same ages, whereas children 6-7years performed similarly in both groups regarding number of retrieved words and use of strategies. The results are discussed with respect to factors such as age differences in performance for children with CI, especially for the phonemically based task.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)467-474
    Number of pages8
    JournalScandinavian Journal of Psychology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012


    • Age-dependence
    • Children
    • Cochlear implantation
    • Strategies
    • Word fluency

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