ZODIACAL EXOPLANETS in TIME (ZEIT). III. A SHORT-PERIOD PLANET ORBITING A PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR in the UPPER SCORPIUS OB ASSOCIATION

Andrew W. Mann, Elisabeth R. Newton, Aaron C. Rizzuto, Jonathan Irwin, Gregory A. Feiden, Eric Gaidos, Gregory N. Mace, Adam L. Kraus, David J. James, Megan Ansdell, David Charbonneau, Kevin R. Covey, Michael J. Ireland, Daniel T. Jaffe, Marshall C. Johnson, Benjamin Kidder, Andrew Vanderburg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We confirm and characterize a close-in (Porb = 5.425 days), super-Neptune sized (5.04-0.37+0.34 R) planet transiting K2-33 (2MASS J16101473-1919095), a late-type (M3) pre-main-sequence (11 Myr old) star in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the ScorpiusCentaurus OB association. The host star has the kinematics of a member of the Upper Scorpius OB association, and its spectrum contains lithium absorption, an unambiguous sign of youth (<20 Myr) in late-type dwarfs. We combine photometry from K2 and the ground-based MEarth project to refine the planet's properties and constrain the host star's density. We determine K2-33's bolometric flux and effective temperature from moderate-resolution spectra. By utilizing isochrones that include the effects of magnetic fields, we derive a precise radius (6%-7%) and mass (16%) for the host star, and a stellar age consistent with the established value for Upper Scorpius. Follow-up high-resolution imaging and Doppler spectroscopy confirm that the transiting object is not a stellar companion or a background eclipsing binary blended with the target. The shape of the transit, the constancy of the transit depth and periodicity over 1.5 yr, and the independence with wavelength rule out stellar variability or a dust cloud or debris disk partially occulting the star as the source of the signal; we conclude that it must instead be planetary in origin. The existence of K2-33b suggests that close-in planets can form in situ or migrate within ∼10 Myr, e.g., via interactions with a disk, and that long-timescale dynamical migration such as by Lidov-Kozai or planetplanet scattering is not responsible for all short-period planets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number61
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume152
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • planetary systems
  • stars: fundamental parameters
  • stars: individual (K2-33)
  • stars: late-type
  • stars: low-mass
  • stars: pre-main sequence

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